Author: Shaykh 'Ali Hasan
TWO ‘EIDS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
be to Allâh, Lord of the Worlds, and peace and blessings be upon our Prophet
and upon all his family and companions.
Arabic word "Eid" refers to something habitual, that returns and is
repeated, thus stands literally
for a recurrent event. It also implies a place often visited by people, and the
period of time
in which a particular act is regularly performed. Likewise, each gathering that
comes under the category, ‘Eid’. Eids or festivals are symbols to be found
in every nation,
including those that are based on revealed scriptures and those that are
idolatrous, as well
as others, because celebrating festivals is something that is an instinctive
part of human nature.
All people like to have special occasions to celebrate, where they can come
express their joy and happiness.
UNBELIEVERS’ RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS
are numerous religious festivals and fairs of the unbelievers. Islam prohibits
to celebrate their festivals and fairs. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
had prohibited his
sports and enjoyment on two particular days on which the pre-Islamic Arabs used
sports. Likewise, he forbade them to sacrifice their animals at the places where
used to celebrate their festivals.
festivals of the kaafir nations may be connected to worldly matters, such as the
the year, the start of an agricultural season, the changing of the weather, the
a state, the accession of a ruler, and so on. They may also be connected to
like many of the festivals belonging exclusively to the Jews and Christians,
the Thursday on which they claim the table was sent down to Jesus, Christmas,
Thanksgiving, and holidays on which gifts are exchanged. These are celebrated in
and North American countries nowadays. And in other countries where Christian
is prevalent, even if the country is not originally Christian, some so-called
in these holidays, out of ignorance or hypocrisy. The Magians (Zoroastrians)
also have their
own festivals, such as Mahrajaan, Nowruz and so on.
are strictly prohibited from joining these religious festivals of the People of
and other unbelievers on two grounds; (1): it represents a resemblance to the
and (2): these are acts of innovations. All such festivals and fairs which have
into vogue as a result of innovation are to be treated in the same way, whether
the practice of the unbelievers or not.
INNOVATED RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS:
Al-Raghaib: it is the first Thursday and the following Friday night of
the month of Rajab celebrated
by ignorant Muslims. There is no evidence of this ceremony from the Glorious
and Sunnah of the Prophet (!). According to Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, it
introduced after the 4 th century A.H A fabricated hadeeth is presented in
support of this practice.
See Al-Fawaaid-ul-Majmoo‘ah fil Ahaadeeth-il-Muwdoo‘ah: pp. 67-8, no. 106.
Salaat Umm Daadoo: A prayer which is offered in the middle of the month
of Rajab. A particular
day is set apart and a specific prayer is offered on this day. See Al-Fawaaid-ul-Majmoo‘
fil Ahaadeeth-il-Muwdoo‘ah: p. 69, no. 107.
‘Eid Khum Ghadeer: The Baatinis have their own festivals too, such as
"Eid al-Ghadeer", when
they claim that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam gave the khilaafah to ‘Alee (may
with him) and to the twelve imams after him. It is the name of place where the
had delivered a sermon on 18 th Thul-Hijjah. This report is based on Hadeeth
by Zayd ibn Arqam which is collected by Imaam Muslim in Sahih Muslim: vol. 4,
1286, no.5920. Shaykh Imaam ibn Taymeeyah said in regards to this hadeeth in his
as Siratil Mustaqeem: "the misguided people have,
however, effected certain interpolations
into this report. They even claim that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
had clearly commanded
‘Alee be appointed the Caliph and had seated him at an elevated place. …".
He further said:
" We are not concerned here with the issue of Imaamah. Our objection lies
in declaring that
it is an innovation to regard this particular day as a special day." See
for further details, ‘Mukhtasar
Iqtidaa As-Siraatil Mustaqeem: English Translation: the right way: pp.45-58.
festivals and fairs of the people of the book or unbelievers or similar
by Muslims are all innovations and every Muslim should avoid them to protect his
All kaafir or innovated festivals are haraam, such as Independence Day
of revolutions, holidays celebrating trees or accessions to the throne,
Labour Day, the Nile festival, Shimm al-Naseem (Egyptian spring holiday),
day, and al-Mawlood al-Nabawi (Prophet’s Birthday).
Muslim must consider the following saying of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam used to deliver his sermon with this opening:
best word is the Book of Allâh and the best way is that of Muhammad ( !). The
worst deed is innovation and each innovation is a deviation from Islaam."
[Sahih Muslim: (vol. 2, p. 410, no. 1885).]
is an additional remark in Sunan An-Nasaaee:
deviation from Islaam leads to Hell-fire". [Sunan
Nasa’i: English Translation: (vol. 2, pp. 343-4, no. 1581.)]
reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Whoever
does an act which is not in agreement with our faith, such an act is
rejected." [Sahih Al-Bukhari: (vol. 3, no. 861.).]
is another report by her with different wordings:
invents something in our faith which does not originally exist, has nothing to
us." [ Sahih Muslim: (vol. 3, p. 931, nos. 4266-7).]
ibn Saariyah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:
survives me would observe many differences. However, you should follow my
and that of my rightly guided caliphs. Adhere to it firmly. Beware! Avoid
for each innovation is a deviation from Islaam." [Sunan Abu
Dawud: (vol. 3, p.
1294, no. 4590).]
must celebrate only three ‘Eids:
Friday is the day of ‘Eid for Muslims
three Eids are exclusively for the Muslims, and that it is not permissible for
Muslims to imitate the kuffaar and mushrikeen in anything that is a distinctive
part of their celebrations, whether it be food, dress, bonfires or acts of
DECREES OF AL-‘EID:
are three opinions among the scholars:
Some say it is waajib (obligatory);
(2): Some say it is Fardul Kifaayah (if some offered the prayer then it is
enough and it is not obligatory
upon all); and
(3): Some say it is Sunnatul Muakkadah (recommended)
evidence of those who say it is waajib:
of the scholars say that ‘Eid prayers are waajib (obligatory) – this is
the view of the Hanafee
scholars and of Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah (may Allâh have mercy on him).
say that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam always prayed the ‘Eid prayer and never omitted to do
it, not even
once. They take as evidence the aayah (interpretation of the meaning), "Therefore
prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only)" [al-Kawthar
108:2], i.e., the ‘Eid prayer and
the sacrifice after it, which is an instruction, and the fact that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
ordered that the
women should be brought out to attend the ‘Eid prayers, and that a woman who
did not have
a jilbaab should borrow one from her sister. [See Tamaamul Minnah: by Al-Albaanee:
Refer to Al-Mughnaee by Imaam ibn Qudaamah: vol. 2, p. 223.]
evidence of those who say it is Fardul Kifaayah: Some scholars say that Eid
prayer is Fardul
Kifaayah. This is the view of the Hanbalees. Refer to Al-Mughnaee by Imaam ibn
vol. 2, p. 223.
evidence of these who it is sunnatul Muakkadah: A third group say that ‘Eid
prayer is sunnah
mu’akkadah. This is the view of the Maalikis and Shaafa’is. They take as
hadeeth of the Bedouin which says that Allâh has not imposed any prayers on His
than the five daily prayers. Refer to Al-Mughnaee by Imaam ibn Qudaamah: vol. 2,
OF MUSLIMS’ ‘EIDS:
the Muslim should be keen to attend ‘Eid prayers, especially since the opinion
that it is waajib
is based on strong evidence. The goodness, blessings and great reward one gets
‘Eid prayers, and the fact that one is following the example of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
so, should be sufficient motivation.
reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:
every people there is a feast and this is our feast." [Sahih Al-Bukhari:
(vol. 5, no. 268).]
feast" has a great meaning to Muslims because it tells us that
our feasts are our own and derived
from our Sharee‘ah alone. Holidays are usually based on religious traditions.
It is very
important that we demonstrate our celebrations with great joy and gathering, and
them in such a way that distinguishes us from the Mushrikeen. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
us in numerous speeches to defy the Mushrikeen, and these ‘Eids are among what
sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam wanted us to take special care of. That is why he has said, after seeing
that the people
of Madeenah had two holidays which they celebrated from before Islaam, which is
by Anas ibn Maalik that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said,
has given you better than those feasts: the ‘Eid-ul-Adh-haa (Feast of
Sacrificing), and ‘Eid-ul-Fitr (feast of Breaking the fast)."
[Sunan An-Nasaaee: English translation: (vol. 2, p.333, no. 1559), Sunan Abu
Dauwud: English translation: (vol. 1, p.293, no. 1130). It is authenticated by
Shaykh Al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan Aboo Daawood: vol. 1, p. 210, no.1004.]
to these clear facts, Muslim scholars put great emphasis on the concept of being
different from the Mushrikeen in our ceremonies. This is because ceremonies have
great effects over the human mind and behavior. Being different in our
ceremonies means too that we must not participate in the Mushrikeen’s
ceremonies on their holidays. It is mentioned in Sunan Al-Bayhaqee the statement
of ‘Umar that, he said, "Do not learn the language of the Mushrikeen
without a necessity nor enter the churches of Mushrikeen on their festivals
because the anger of Allâh dissends on them then". Muslims should not
celebrate their festivals instead they should oppose them. Muslims can fast on
the Mushrikeen’s holidays.
Salamah said the Prophet used to fast on Saturdays and Sundays, and when asked
"They are two days of Mushrikeen’s holidays so I
like to oppose them in their ceremonies."
[Musnad Imaam Ahmad.]
above hadeeth is inauthentic in the view of some scholars of hadeeth like Al-Albaanee
Ghaleel: vol. 4, p. 125 and authentic in the view of Imaam Al-Haakim and Imaam
Fasting on Friday or Saturday is haraam (prohibited) in Islaam when a man
these days as particular days for fasting and does not fast the day before or
it is in the hadeeth narrated by Imaam At-Tirmithee which is authenticated by
Irwaaul-Ghaleel: vol. 4, p.118, no. 960. by prohibition of fasting on Saturday
meant to oppose the Jews who keep fast on Saturday. But if someone wants to fast
then he must fast Friday and Saturday or Saturday and Sunday, two days together.
that person is allowed to fast who has missed his fast of Ramadaan so that he
can fast that
day. Also the one who has vowed to fast then he can fast or fast as an
atonement, and for expiation
PURPOSE BEHIND THE ‘EID PRAYER:
exhorts its followers to make social life a visible expression of
is the most effective means of fostering this virtue in man. This is the reason
why it has
been made essential for Muslims to observe obligatory prayers in congregation.
It starts with
five daily prayers then Jumu‘ah is a step forward in this respect, then comes
and then once a year the Hajj. The purpose behind it is to provide opportunities
to a greater
number of Muslims to attend larger congregations in an atmosphere of religious
from prayer, the sermon has also been made an integral part of this gathering
and the prayer.
WHOM THE PERFORMANCE OF SALAATUL ‘EID IS VALID:
‘Eid prayer is valid for men, women, children, travellers, residents, people
and people praying individually. It is also valid if performed in a house,
or a distant place designated for the salah, and so on.
OF A MUSLIM ON THE DAY OF ‘EID-UL-ADH-HAA:
assess the concept of being different from the Mushrikeen, it is very important
to say that: in
order to be different in our ceremonies in the way the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
wanted us to
be, we must
follow the Sunnah literally. That would give us the deeds of bieng true
followers of he Prophet
(!). So if we want to be his sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam followers we must be aware of Bid‘ah. Bid‘ah
at the expense of Sunnah which is replaced by it. Ibn Taymiyah said inhis book
is no place in the heart for both Sunnah and Bid‘ah".
says: "Say-O Muhammad-if you love Allâh follow
me, Allâh will love you." [Aali ‘Emraan:
Muslim is required to follow the teachings of the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
going to the
‘Eid prayer. It is of great important to follow the Sunnah of ‘Eid so we can
truly say that our
feasts are different from the Mushrikeen’s feasts.
AL-’EID FOR ALL THOSE WHO ATTEND THE ‘EIDS PRAYER
The Muslim is required to make ghusl or ablution on this day. It can be done
at any time
but to serve the purpose it is recommended to do it before going out for the
‘Eid prayer is held in congregation and it is held in a huge gathering more
than the Jumu‘ah
prayer, therefore, as the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam asked Muslims to make ghusl for Friday
it should also be considered for ‘Eid prayer to serve the purpose. The purpose
and the goal
is to be clean for prayer and avoid harming the people with odor, etc. The
Muslim is required
to make ghusl or ablution on this day. It can be done any time but to serve the
it is recommended to do it before going out for the prayer. This is recommended
the person will feel fresh throughout the day, he will have full concentration
in his prayer
and to what is being mentioned in the khutbah after the prayer and most
will not harm others with the bad smell.
Al-Baghawee said in ‘Sharhus Sunnah’: vol.4, pp.301-302, that, "And
the sunnah is to
take a bath on the day of ‘Eid. It is reported that ‘Alee used to take bath
on the day of ‘Eid,
and similarly it is reported that Ibn ‘Umar and Salamah ibn Al-Akwa‘ used to
report of ‘Alee is found in Imaam Shaafa‘ee’s book: Musnad Ash-Shaafi‘ee:
but this report in inauthentic due to Ibraaheem ibn Muhammad, who is week in the
of the Scholars of Hadeeth. The other report of Ibn ‘Umar is found in the book
Maalik: Muatta’ Imaam Maalik: (Arabic) vol: 1, p.177 and (English
chapter: 104, hadeeth: 421. Refer to Zaadul Ma’aad: vol. 1, pp. 441-2.
Eating on the two ‘Eids: It
is a sunnah to eat dates before leaving for ‘Eid-ul-Fitr. It is preferable not
to eat anything on
the day of ‘Eid-ul-Adh-haa until performing the ‘Eid prayer in the morning;
then one should
return home, slaughter an animal, and prepare the meal and eat from it. For ‘Eidul
it is a sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray salaatul ‘Eid
while for ‘Eidul
adh-haa the eating should be delayed until one returns from the ‘Eid prayer
and then he
may eat of his sacrifice if he has sacrificed an animal.
Prophet would not go out on the festival of breaking the fast until he had eaten
number of dates." [This is related by Sahih al-Bukhari: vol. 2,
reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the day
of breaking the fast (‘Eidul Fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of
sacrifice (‘Eidul adh-haa) he would not eat until he had returned [from salah]."
This is related by at-Tirmithee and Ibn Majah, and also by Sunan Ad-Daaramee who
added: "And he would eat from his sacrifice."
[ Sharhus Sunnah: vol. 4, p. 306, footnote: 1.]
It is highly recommended that he should wear his best clothes on this day.
Ja'far ibn-Muhammad relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather
who reported that the Prophet would wear a Yemeni cloak on every ‘Eid. This is
related by ash-Shaafi‘ee and al-Baghawee. Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The
Prophet used to wear his most beautiful clothes for them and he had a special
cloak that he would wear on the two ‘Eids and Jumu'ah." [Reference
can be checked in Sharhus Sunnah: vol. 4, p. 302, footnote. 2. See Zaadul Mi ‘a
ad: vol. 1, p.441.]
He is required to use hair oil.
He is required to apply perfume if he has his own, otherwise, he may use his
wife’s perfume. Al-Hassan as-Sibt says: "The
Messenger of Allâh ordered us to wear the best clothes we could find for the
two ‘Eids and to apply the best perfume we could find and to sacrifice the
best animal we could find." This is related by al-Haakim and in
its chain is Ishaaq ibn Barzakh whom al-'Azdi declares to be weak while Ibn
Hibban says he is trustworthy.
He should use the tooth-brush (miswaak) before going to the ‘Eid prayer.
He must remove all offensive smells, which might harm others. It is
prohibited for him to attend the ‘Eid prayer, if he smells onion or garlic.
OUT TO THE MUSALLAA (place for prayer)
‘Eid can be performed in the mosque but it is preferred to perform it in a
the city as long as there is no excuse or reason to do otherwise (e.g., rain,
etc.). As the Prophet
would pray the two ‘Eids in the outskirts of al-Medeenah and he never prayed
it in his
mosque, except it is reported through a week narration that once he prayed in
the mosque because
it was raining.
during the days of ‘Eid
is a sunnah to pronounce the takbeeraat on ‘Eid days. Concerning the ‘Eid of
breaking the fast,
Allâh says: "you should complete the prescribed
period and that you should glorify
[i.e., say takbeeraat] for having guided you and that you may give thanks."
the ‘Eid of the sacrifice, Allâh says: "that
you may remember Allâh during
well known days;" Al-Hajj: 22:
majority of the scholars say that the time for the takbeeraat during the ‘Eid
of breaking the
fast is from the time one goes to the ‘Eid prayer until the khutbah begins.
Weak hadith have
been recorded stating this, but there are also authentic reports from Ibn 'Umar
and other companions
that they did so.
says: "This sunnah has been practiced by ahl-il
hadeeth. Maalik, Ahmad, Ishaaq, and
Abu Thaur [have made statements concurring that practice] ."
say that the takbeeraat are from the night before the ‘Eid, when the moon is
seen, until the
person goes to the musallaa and the imaam arrives. The time for the takbeeraat
during the ‘Eid
of the sacrifice is from the day of 'Arafah until the time of the 'asr on the
thirteenth of Thul-Hijjah.
[See Sharhussunnah: vol. 4, pp. 300-1. See Zaadul Mi ‘aad: vol. 1, p. 449.]
Al-Bukhaaree says in Sahih Al-Bukahri: vol. 2, p. 45, chapter. 11.
"Superiority of doing
good deeds of the days of Tashreeq (11 th , 12 th , 13 th , of Thul-Hijjah ).
Ibn ‘Abbaas recited
the Holy verses; "Remember Allâh during the known days-i.e. the first ten
days of Thul-Hijjah,
and also the counted days i.e. the days of Tashreeq." Ibn ‘Umar and Abu
used to go out to the market saying Takbir during the first ten days of
the people would say Takbir after their Takbir s. Muhammad bin ‘Ali used to
say Takbir after
Hajar writes in Fath al-Baaree: "None of that has
been confirmed from the Prophet. The most
authentic report from the companions is that ‘Alee and Ibn Mas‘ood would
make the takbeeraat
from the day of 'Arafah to the 'asr of the last day of Mina. Ibn al-Munthir and
reported it. AshShafa‘ee, Ahmad, Aboo Yoosuf, and Muhammad follow that report
is also the view of 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbaas."
is no specific time for the takbeeraat during the days of tashriq (three days
after ‘Eidul adha).
In fact, it is preferred to pronounce takbeeraat during every moment of those
recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari: vol. 2, p. 46, chapter. 12. "During
'Umar's stay at Mina,
he would say takbeeraat in his tent [so loud] that the people in the mosque
would hear it
and then they would start doing it. Also the people in the market place would do
the same and
all of Mina would resound with the takbeeraat. Ibn 'Umar used to say the
those days of Mina, after the prayers and while on his bed, in his tent, while
while walking during all of those days. Maymoonah would say the takbeeraat on
the day of
sacrifice. The women used to say takbeeraat behind Abbaan ibn 'Uthmaan and 'Umar
along with the men in the mosque during the days of tashreeq."
ibn Hajar said: "These reports show that the
takbeeraat are made during all the times
of these days, after salaah and all other times. Some say the takbeeraat are
made only after
the salaah. Some say they are to be made only after the fard prayers and not
Some declare them to be for men .and not for women, while some say that they are
to be said in congregations and not individually. Some reserve them only for
those who perform
the salaah on time and not for those who are making up a missed prayer. Some say
for residents and not travellers, whereas others think they are only for the
people of the city
and not for the people of the countryside. Apparently al-Bukhari is of the
opinion that it is
for all people and the reports that he has transmitted support his
by Muhammad bin Abee Bakr Al Thaqafee : "While we
were going from Mina to 'Arafat,
I asked Anas bin Malik, about Talbiya, "How did you use to say Talbiya in
of the Prophet?" Anas said: "People used
to say Talbiya and their saying was not
to and they used to say Takbeer and that was not objected to either. "
Sahih Al-Bukhari: vol.
2,p. 46, no. 87
can also pronounce the takbeer:
by Umm ‘Ateeyah: "We used to be ordered to come out
on the Day of ‘Eid and even
bring out the virgin girls from their houses and menstruating women so that they
behind the men and say Takbeer along with them and invoke Allâh along with them
hope for the blessings of that day and for purification from sins."
Sahih Al-Bukhari: vol. 2,
ONE CAN SAY TAKBEERAAT?
takbeeraat can be made in many different forms. The most authentic form is that
been recorded with a sahih chain by 'Abdurrazzaaq from Salmaan, who said: "They
akbar, Allâhu akbar, Allâhu akbar kabeera."' From
'Umar and ibn Mas'ood the following is related: "Allâhu
akbar. Allâhu akbar. La ilaha
ill Allâh. Allâhu akbar. Allâhu akbar wa lillahil-hamd."
Allâh is the greatest, Allâh is the greatest. There is no God but Allâh.
is the greatest, Allâh is the greatest. All praise belongs to Allâh. [See
vol. 4, pp. 301. See Zaadul Ma’aad: vol. 1, p. 449.]
Women and children going out to attend ‘Eid prayer
requires women and children to go out and attend the salaatul ‘Eidayn. This
single, young, old, or menstruating women. Umm
'Ateeyah reports: "We were ordered to go out with the
single and menstruating women
to the two ‘Eids in order to witness the good and the supplications of the
menstruating women would be separate from the others." [This is
related by Sahih al-Bukhari: vol.
2, p. 48, no. 91.]
above hadeeth clears it that the menstruating women will not prayer and will
keep away from
the Musallaa, Sahih Al-Bukhari: vol. 2, p. 52, no. 97.
'Abbas further reports: "I went out with the Prophet
on the day of breaking the fast or of
the sacrifice, and he prayed and gave a khutbah, and then he went to the women
them, reminded them of Allâh, and ordered them to give charity."
[This is related
by Sahih al-Bukhari: vol. 2, p. 48, no. 92.]
Taking different routes to and from musallaa
of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is preferred for a person
to go to the
salaah by one route and then to return home through another route, regardless of
be the imaam or a member of the congregation. Jabir
reports: "On the days of ‘Eid, the Prophet would
take different routes." [This is related
by Sahih al-Bukhari: vol. 2, p. 54, no. 102.]
Hurairah says: "When the Prophet went to salaatul
‘Eid, he would return through a
route." [This is related by at-Tirmithee:Saheeh Sunan At-Titmthee:
vol. 1, p. 168, no.
The time of ‘Eid prayers
time for salaatul ‘Eid begins from the time the sun is three meters above the
horizon until the
sun reaches its meridian. The majority of scholars say that the time for the Eid
when the sun has risen above the height of a spear, as seen by the naked eye,
until the sun is approaching its zenith. It
is better to offer the ‘Eid prayer in the forenoon in the early hours after
the sunrise. The reason
is that the people have to slaughter the sacrificial animals on theday of
the prayer on this occasion should be offered earlier than the prayer offered on
of breaking the fast.
ibn Khumayr Rahbee said: ‘Abd Allâh ibn Busr, the companion of the Prophet
along with the people on the day of the breaking of the fast or on the day of
sacrifice (to offer
the prayer). He disliked the delay of the Imaam, and said: We would finish our
at this moment, that is, at the time of forenoon. [Sunan Abu Dawud: (Eng): vol.
1, p. 293,
no. 1131 and it is authenticated by Al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan Aboo Daawood:
pp. 210-1, no. 1005. Imaam al-Bukhari has mentioned in Sahih Al-Bukhari: vol. 2,
p. 44, chapter.
Qudamah says: "It is a sunnah to pray salaatul adha
early in order to allow more time for
people to perform the sacrifice, and the salaatul Fitr is to be delayed in order
to give people
time to pay zakat al-Fitr. I know of no difference of opinion on this
point." [Refer to Al-Mughnaee
by Imaam ibn Qudaamah: vol. 2, p. 224.]
The athaan and iqaamah for salaatul ‘Eidayn
al-Qayyim writes: "When the Messenger of Allâh went
to the musallaa (place of prayer),
he would perform the salaah without any athaan or iqaamah and without saying
(prayer in congregation). The sunnah is not to do any of that." [Zaadul
vol. 1, p. 442.].
'Abbaas and Jaabir both report that there was no athaan on the day of the
breaking of the fast
or on the day of sacrifice. This is related by al-Bukhari: vol. 2, p. 41, no.
78. and Muslim:
vol. 2, p. 417, no. 1927 .
OF THE ‘EID PRAYER
Muslim must pray ‘Eid prayer as the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam has prayed. The Prophet
sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam has said:
"Pray as you see me praying". [Sahih
Al-Bukhari: vol. 1, p. 345, no. 604.].
Sunnah before or after the ‘Eid prayer:
is not established that there is any sunnah prayer before or after the ‘Eid
prayer. The Prophet
never performed any such prayer, neither did his companions upon arrival at the
was the practice of the Muslims at the time Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
that they would not pray
or nafl prayers before or after the ‘Eid prayer. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
or nafl before or after the ‘Eid prayer.
ibn ‘Abbaas said: " the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
two Rak‘aat prayer on the day of
Fitr and he did not pray before or after it." [Refer to Sahih
Al-Bukhari: vol. 2, p. 43, no. 81].
The takbeer during salaatul ‘Eidayn:
‘Eid prayer consists of two rak'at during which it is sunnah to pronounce the
times, after the opening takbir and before the Qur'anic recital in the first
(may Allâh be pleased with him) said: "The prayer of
‘Eid and al-Adh-haa is two complete
rak’ahs, not shortened. This is according to the words of your Prophet (!),
and the liar
is doomed." [Refer to Irwaaul Ghaleel by Al-Albaanee: vol. 3,
pp.105-6, no. 638.]
the second rak'ah, one makes takbir five times after the takbeer which is
for standing after the prostration. The difference between ‘Eid prayer and the
Friday is that,
in ‘Eid prayer the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam made twelve additional takbeer, whereas it is
not the same for
Friday prayer. The Takbeer is repeated seven times in the first rak’ah and
five times in the second.
Qur’aan is to be recited after completing the seven takbeer in the first raka‘ah,
the five takbeer in the second raka‘ah. ‘Aishah
said: the Prophetsallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam would say the takbeer seven times
in the first raka‘ah and five times in the second raka‘ah on the day of the
breaking of the fast and on the day of sacrifice
theoccasion of both the ‘Eid
prayers, the two festivals. [Sunan Abu Dawud: (Eng.): vol.
pp. 296-7, no. 1145. Refer to the Saheeh Sunan Aboo Daawood: vol. 1, p. 213, no.
another version She said: "Except the two takbeers
pronounced at the time of bowing." [Sunan
Abu Dawud: (Eng.): vol. 1, p. 297, no. 1146. Refer to the Saheeh Sunan Aboo
vol. 1, p. 213, no. 1019.]
ibn Shu'aib reports from his father on the authority of his grandfather that the
Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
said : "There are seven takbeers in the first raka‘ah and five in the
second raka‘ah of the
prayer offered on the day of the breaking of the fast and then recitation of the
the additional takbeers". [Sunan Abu Dawud: (Eng.): vol. 1, p. 297, no.
1147. Refer to
the Saheeh Sunan Aboo Daawood: vol. 1, p. 213, no. 1020.]
It is not the sunnaah of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam to raise the hands while saying
and nothing besides takbeer should be uttered. [See Tamaamul Minnah: by Al-Albaanee:
states that the strongest opinion is that if one does not perform the takbeeraat
of forgetfulness, he is not to perform the prostrations of forgetfulness. [Naylul
Awtaar: by Imaam
Ash-Shaukaanee: vol.3, p. 300.]
of Qur’aan in ‘Eid prayers:
is not restricted that one has to read particular soorah in the ‘Eid prayers.
It is recommended
(mustahabb) that in the ‘Eid prayers the imaam should recite Sooratu Qaaf
50] and Sooratul Qamar[al-Qamar, soorah 54], as it is reported that: ‘Umar ibn
Aboo Waaqid al-Laythee, "What did the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
at [Eid] al-Adhaa and al-Fitr?" He said, "He used to recite Qaaf. Wa’l-Qur’aan
50:1] and Aqtarabat al-saa’ah wa anshaqq al-qamar [al-Qamar 54:1].
Muslim: vol. 2, p. 419, no.1936]
of the reports indicate that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam used to recite Soorat al-A’laa
 and Soorat
al-Ghaashiyah , as he used to recite them in the Friday prayer. Al-Nu’maan
said: "The Messenger of Allâh (peace and
blessings of Allâh be upon him) used to
on the two Eids and on Fridays, Sabbih isma rabbika’l-a’laa [al-A’laa
87:1] and Hal ataaka
hadeeth al-ghaashiyah [al-Ghaashiyah 88:1]." [Sahih Muslim: vol.
2, p. 414, no.1907]
The khutbah of salaatul ‘Eid:
khutbah after salaatul ‘Eid is a sunnah and so is listening to it. It is not
compulsory as with
the case of Friday prayer. It is permissible to go back home without attending
of the ‘Eid. The sunnah of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam is to deliver the khutbah after the
[Al-Mughnee: vol. 2, p. 246.]
Sa‘eed says: "On the ‘Eid of breaking the fast
and of the sacrifice, the Prophet would go to
musalla (prayer place) and begin with the salah and when he finished, he would
face the people
while the people were sitting in rows, and he would admonish them, advise them,
them [to do good deeds]. And if he wished to send off an army or order
something, he would do so and then leave." [This is related by Sahih
al-Bukhari: vol. 2, pp. 40-1, no. 76 and
Sahih Muslim: vol. 2, p. 418, no.1931].
ibn as-Sa'ib said: "I prayed the ‘Eid salaah with
the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and when
he finished the salaah he said: 'We will be delivering a khutbah. Whoever wishes
for the khutbah may stay. Whoever would like to leave, may leave.' "
[This is related by Abu
Dawud: (Eng.) vol. 1, p. 298, no. 1151, Saheeh Sunan Aboo Daawood: vol. 1, p.
al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would begin all of his
khutbahs with the praise of Allâh and
there is no hadeeth from him that states that he began his ‘Eid khutbahs with
takbeer. Ibn Majah
recorded in his Sunan from Sa‘eed, the mu’ath-thin of the Prophet (!), that
sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam would say the takeeir during his khutbahs and even more so during the ‘Eid
Still, this does not prove that he began his khutbah with it! The people differ
beginning of the ‘Eid and the khutbah for salaatul istisqaa' (prayer for
rain). Some say that they
are to begin with takbeer. Some say that the khutbah for salaatul istisqaa'
begins with praying
for forgiveness while others say it begins with praises of Allâh."
Shaikh al-Islaam Ibn
Taimiyyah says: "That is correct as the Prophet said:
'Every affair that does not begin with the praise of Allâh
is deficient.' The Prophet began all of
his speeches with praises of Allâh. Concerning the statement of many jurists,
i.e.. he began the 'prayer for rain' by asking
from Allâh and the id speech with takbir, there is absolutely no proof for it
Prophet's sunnah. In fact the sunnah contradicts that statement as he began all
of his speeches
with the praises of Allâh." [Zaadul Ma‘aad: vol. 1, pp. 447-8]
Congratulating one another on the days of ‘Eid
may exchange congratulations and good greetings on Eid, no matter what form the
take. For example they may say to one another, "Taqabbal Allâhu minnaa wa
(May Allâh accept [the fast and worship] from us and from you" or "Eid
other similar permissible greetings. [Al-Mughnee: by ibn Qudaamah: vol. 2, p.
ibn Nufayr said: "At the time of the Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allâh be upon him),
when people met one another on the day of Eid, they would say, ‘Taqabbal Allâhu minnaa
wa minka (May Allâh accept from us and from you).’" (Ibn Hajar.
Its isnaad is hasan.
Fathul Baaree: vol.2, p. 446).
practice of exchanging greetings was well-known at the time of the Sahaabah and
such as Imaam Ahmad and others allowed it. There are reports which indicate that
permissible to congratulate people on special occasions. The Sahaabah used to
another when something good happened, such as when Allâh accepted a person’s
and so on. There
is no doubt that congratulating others in this way is one of the noblest kinds
of good manners
and one of the highest social qualities among Muslims.
the very least, one can return Eid greetings when they are given to you, and
remain silent if
nothing is said, as Imaam Ahmad (may Allâh have mercy on him) said: "If
me, I return the greeting, but I do not initiate it."
Whoever misses salaatul ‘Eid with the congregation may pray two rak'at
Sahih al-Bukhari we find in the chapter entitled: "Whoever missed the ‘Eid
prayer should pray
two Raka‘ah, and similarly the women and those who are at home and in the
do so, as is confirmed by the statement of the Prophet (!):
"O Muslims, this our ‘Eid".
Anas ibn Maalik at Az-Zaawiyah ordered his slave ibn Abee Ghaneeyah to collect
family and off-spring. Anas led prayer similar to that offered by townspeople
takbeer similar to theirs. ‘Ekrimah said: "The
villagers should gather on the day of
and offer two raka‘ah as the Imaam does." ‘Ataa said, "Whoever
misses the ‘Eid prayer should
pray two raka‘ah." [Sahih Al-Buukhari: vol. 2, p. 55, chapter.
Making up a missed ‘Eid prayer on the next day:
'Umair ibn Anas reports: "My Ansari uncles from among
the companions of the Messenger
of Allâh sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said to me: 'The moon for the month of Shawwal was hidden from
and, therefore, our companions fasted. Then at the end of the day, riders came
and they bore
witness to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam that they had seen the moon the previous night. The
the people to break their fasts and to go out to the site of the salaatul ‘Eid
on the next day.'"
[This is related by An-Nasaaee: (Eng): vol. 2, pp. 333-4, no. 1560, Saheeh Sunan
1, p. 341, no. 1466.]
this hadeeth there lies evidence for those who say that if the people miss
salaatul ‘Eid due to
some excuse, then they may go out and pray it the next day.
Playing, amusements, singing, and eating on the days of ‘Eid
amusements, and singing, if they stay within the moral bounds, are permissible
the days of ‘Eid. Anas reports: "When the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
came to Medeenah they had two days
of sports and amusement. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Allâh,
the Exalted, has exchanged these
days for two days better than them: the day of breaking the fast and the day of
" [This is related by An-Nasaaee: (Eng.):
vol.2, p. 333, no. 1559 Saheeh Sunan An-Nasaaee:
vol. 1, p. 341, no. 1465.]
says: "The Abyssinians were preforming in the mosque
on the day of ‘Eid. I looked over
the Prophet's sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam shoulders and he lowered them a little so I could see them
until I was satisfied
and left." This
is related by Sahih Al-Bukhari: vol.1, p. 265, no. 445. Sahih Muslim: vol. 2, p.
al-Bukhari, and Sahih Muslim also record that she said: "Aboo
Bakr entered upon us on
the day of ‘Eid and there were some slave girls who were recounting [in song
the battle of] Bu'ath
in which many of the brave of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj were killed. Aboo
'Slaves of Allâh, you play the pipes of the Satan!' He said it three times. The
Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
said to him: 'O Aboo Bakr, every people have a
festival and this is our festival.' "
vol.2, p. 38, no. 72. Sahih Muslim: vol. 2, pp. 419-20, no. 1938].
al-Bukhari's version, 'Aishah said: "The Messenger of
Allâh (!), entered the house and I had
two girls who were singing about the battle of Bu'ath. The Prophet lied down on
the bed and
turned his face to the other direction. Aboo Bakr entered and spoke harshly to
instruments of the Satan in the presence of the Messenger of Allâh (!)!' The
of Allâh sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam turned his face to him and said: 'Leave
them.' When Aboo Bakr
inattentive I signaled to the girls to leave. It was the day of ‘Eid and the
performing with their shields and spears. Either I asked him or the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
asked if I
would like to watch them [I don't recall now]. I replied in the affirmative. At
this the Prophet
sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam made me stand behind him and my cheek was against his. He was saying:
O tribe of Arfadah,' until I tired. The Prophet
sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam asked: 'Is that enough for you?' I
"yes," so he said: 'Leave [then].' "
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: vol.2, p. 37, no. 70 . Sahih Muslim:
vol. 2, pp. 420-1, no. 1942].
Hajar writes in Fath al-Baaree, "Ibn as-Siraj related from Abu az-Zinad on
the authority of
'Urwah from 'Aishah that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said that day: 'Let
the Jews of Madeenah know that
our religion is spacious [and has room for relaxation] and I have been sent with
an easy and
straight forward religion.' "
record from Nubaishah that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "The days of tashreeq
(i.e., the days in
which the ‘Eid is celebrated) are days of eating and drinking [non alcoholic
drinks] and of remembering
Allâh, the Exalted." [Sahih Muslim: vol. 2, p. 554, no. 2539].
The excellence of good deeds in the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah
'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "No good
deeds done on other days are superior
to those done on these days [meaning the ten days of Thul-Hijjah]."
asked: "O Messenger of Allâh (!), not even jihaad in the way of Allâh?"
"Not even jihad, save for the man who puts his
life and wealth in danger [for Allâh's
and returns with neither of them." [Sahih Al-Bukhari: vol.2,
pp.45-6 , no. 86]
and At-Tabaraanee record from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam
is no day more honorable in Allâh's sight and no acts more beloved therein to
than those in these ten days. So say tahleel ["There is no God but Allâh"],
is the greatest] and tahmid ["All praise is due to Allâh"] a lot [on
those days]." [Irwaaul
Ghaleel: vol. 3, pp. 398-9.]
Warning against wrongdoing:
Some people think that Islaam tells us to stay up and pray on the night of ‘Eid,
quoting an unsound
hadeeth which says that "whoever stays up and prays on the night of ‘Eid,
his heart will
not die on the day when hearts die." This hadeeth was reported with two
isnaads, one of which
is da’eef (weak), and the other is very da’eef. [See Al-Fawaaidul Majmoo‘ah:
Ash-Shaukaanee: p. 71.]
does not tell us to single out the night of ‘Eid for staying up and praying;
if, however, a
person habitually stays up and prays at night (qiyaam), there is nothing wrong
with him doing
so on the night of ‘Eid as well.
Mixing of men and women in some prayer-places, streets, etc. It is a pity that
this happens not
only in mosques but even in the most sacred of places, al-Masjid al-Haraam [in
women – may Allâh guide them – go out uncovered ,wearing make-up and
their adornment, when there is such serious overcrowding in the mosques – the
of this situation are quite obvious. So those who are in charge must organize
the ‘Eid prayers
properly, by allocating separate doors and routes for women and delaying the men’s
until the women have left.
Some people get together on ‘Eid for the purpose of singing and other forms of
and this is not permitted.
Some people celebrate on ‘Eid because Ramadaan is over and they no longer have
to fast. This
is a mistake, the believers celebrate at ‘Eid because Allâh has helped them
to complete the
month of fasting, not because the fasting ,which some people regard as a heavy
burden, is over.
(as at 25th December 2000):