Author: Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Uthaymeen hafidhahullaah
to Allah, Lord of the Universe. May peace and blessings be upon Muhammad, the
last of the prophets and messengers, and upon his family and esteemed companions.
Hajj is one of the best
forms of worship and is one of the most sublime deeds because it is one of the
pillars of Islam that Allah sent Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah
be upon him) with. A servant's religion is incomplete without it. A form of
worship is only acceptable when the following is true:
1. One devotes it to
Allah alone, with a desire for the Hereafter. It cannot be done with the intention
of being seen among men or for worldly gain.
2. One follows the Prophet's
example, in words deeds. This cannot accomplished except knowledge of the
three forms of Hajj: Tamattu', Ifraad and Qiran
A pilgrim wears Ihram for Umrah only during the months of Hajj, which means
when he reaches Makkah, he makes Tawaf and Sa'yi for Umrah. He then shaves or
clips his hair. On the day of Tarwiya, which is the eighth of Dhul-Hijja, he
puts on his Ihram for Hajj only and carries out all of its requirements.
A pilgrim wears Ihram for Hajj only. When he reaches Makkah, he performs Tawaf
for his arrival and Sa'yi for Hajj. He doesn't shave or clip his hair as he
doesn't disengage from Ihram. Instead, he remains in Ihram till after he stones
Jamrah Al-Aqaba on the Eid day. It is permissible for him to postpone his Sa'yi
for Hajj until after his Tawaf for Hajj.
A pilgrim wears Ihram for both Umrah and Hajj or he wears Ihram first for Umrah,
then makes intentions for Hajj before his Tawaf for Hajj. The obligations on
one performing Ifraad are the same as those on one performing Qiran, except
that the latter must slaughter whereas the former is not obligated to do so.
The best of the three forms is Tamattu'. It is the form that the prophet (may
the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) encouraged his followers to perform.
Even if a pilgrim makes intentions to perform Qiran or Ifraad he is allowed
to change his intentions to Tamattu'; he can do this even after he has performed
Tawaf and Sa'yi.
When the Prophet
(may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) performed Tawaf and Sa'yi
during the year of the Farewell Hajj with his companions, he ordered all those
who hadn't brought sacrificial animals to change their intentions for Hajj to
intentions for Umrah. cut their hair, and disengage from Ihram till Hajj. He
said, "If I hadn't brought the sacrificial animal,
I'd have done what I've ordered you to do."
If a pilgrim
wishes to be ritually pure for Umrah, he should shed his clothing and bathe
as he would after sexual defilement, if convenient. He should perfume his head
and beard with the best oil he can find. There is no harm in what remains of
it after Ihram.
Ihram is Sunnah for both men and women, including menstruating women and those
experiencing postnatal bleeding. After bathing and preparing himself, a. pilgrim,
other than those menstruating or experiencing postnatal bleeding, prays the
obligatory prayer, if it is time. Otherwise, he makes his intention by praying
the two Sunnah Rakass which are made each time Wudhu is performed.
When he finishes
his prayer he should say: "Here I am for Umrah, here I am, Oh Allah, here I
am. Here I am. You have no partner. Here I am. Surely all praise, grace and
dominion is yours, and you have no partner." [Talbeeyah].
A man raises
his voice when saying this and a woman says it so that only one beside her may
hear her. One in Ihram should say the Talbeeyah as often as possible, especially
when times and places change. For example: when descending or ascending during
travel or when day or night approach. He should also ask Allah for His pleasure,
for Heaven and seek refuge in Allah's mercy from Hellfire. One should say the
Talbeeyah during Umrah, starting from the time he puts on his Ihram till he
starts Tawaf. During Hajj he should say it starting from the time he puts on
his Ihram till he starts to stone Jamrah Al-Aqaba on the Eid day.
When a pilgrim
enters the Holy Mosque he puts forth his right foot first and says: "In the
name of Allah, may peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah. Oh Allah,
forgive me my sins and open to me the doors of Your mercy. I seek refuge in
Allah the Almighty and in His Eminent Face and in His Eternal Dominion from
the accursed Satan."
the Black Stone, touches it with his right hand and kisses it. If this isn't
possible, he should face the Black Stone and point to it. It is best not to
push and shove, causing harm and being harmed by other people. When touching
the Stone, a pilgrim should say the following: "In the name of Allah, Allah
is the greatest. Oh, Allah, with faith in you, belief in Your book, loyalty
to you, compliance to the way of your Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings
of Allah be upon him)."
must walk, keeping the Ka'bah on his left. When he reaches the Rukn Al Yamani
he should touch, but not kiss it, and say: " Our Lord, grant us good in this
life and good in the hereafter and save us from the punishment of the Hell fire.
Oh Allah, I beg of You for forgiveness and health in this life and in the Hereafter."
Each time he passes the Black Stone he should say: "Allah is the Greatest."
During the remainder of his Tawaf he may say what he pleases of supplications,
mentioning Allah, and recitation of Quran. This is because Tawaf, Sa'yi, and
Stoning the Jamrah have been devised for the purpose of mentioning Allah.
Tawaf it is necessary for a man to do two things:
1. Al-ldhtebaa' from
the beginning of Tawaf until the end. Al-ldhtebaa' means placing the middle
of one's Reda' under his right arm and the ends of it over his left shoulder.
When he is finished performing Tawaf, he may return his Reda' to its original
state because the time for Idhtebaa' is only during Tawaf.
2. Al-Raml during the
first three circuits. Al-Raml means speeding up one's pace with small steps.
A pilgrim should walk at a normal pace during his last four circuits.
When he completes
seven circuits of Tawaf, he approaches Maqam Ibrahim and recites:
"And take ye the station of Abraham as a place of Prayer" Chapter
2, Verse 125 [2:125]. He
prays two short Rakaas, as close as conveniently possible, behind Maqam Ibrahim.
During the first Rakaa he recites Surah Al-Kafirun [Chapter 109] and during
the second one Surah Al-lkhlas [Chapter 112]. When he completes the two Rakaas
he should return to the Black Stone and touch it, if convenient. He goes out
to the Mesa'a and when he nears As-Safaa he recites: "Verily As-Safaa and Al-Marwah
are among the shrines of Allah." [2:158]. He ascends As-Safaa until he is able
to see the Ka'bah. Facing the Ka'bah and raising his hands, he praises Allah
and makes any supplications he chooses. The Prophet (may the peace and blessings
of Allah be upon him) prayed thus: "There is no Deity but Allah alone," three
times, supplicating in between. He descends As-Safaa and heads for Al-Marwah
at a normal pace until he reaches the green marker. He should then run fast
until the next green marker. He continues toward Al-Marwah at a normal pace.
When he reaches it, he ascends it, faces the Qibla, raises his hands and repeats
what he said on As-Safaa. He descends Al-Marwah heading towards As-Safaa, taking
care to walk where walking is designated, and run where running is designated.
He continues this procedure until he completes seven laps.
As-Safaa to Al-Marwah is a lap and returning is another lap. During his Sa'yi
he may recite what he wills of supplications, recitation of Qur'an, and mentioning
Allah. In completion of Sa'yi he shaves his head. A woman clips her hair the
length of a finger tip. Shaving is preferable, except when Hajj is near and
there isn't sufficient time for hair to grow back. In this case it's best to
clip so that hair will remain for shaving during Hajj. With that, Umrah is completed,
and a pilgrim is free to dress in other clothing, wear perfume and engage in
marital relations, etc.
In the forenoon
of the eighth day of Dhul-Hijja, a pilgrim purifies himself once again by bathing
as he did before Umrah in the place in which he is staying, if convenient. He
puts on his Ihram and says: " Here I am for Hajj. Here I am, oh Allah, here
I am. Here I am. You have no partner. Here I am. Surely all praise, grace and
dominion is yours, and you have no partners."
If he fears
that something will prevent him from completing his Hajj he should make a condition
when he makes his intentions, saying: " If I am prevented by any obstacle my
place is wherever I am held up." If he has no such fear, he doesn't make this
goes to Mina and there prays Dhuhr, Asr, Magrib, Isha and Fajr, shortening his
four unit prayers so as to make them two units each, without combining them.
When the sun rises, he goes to Arafah and there prays Dhuhr and Asr combined
at the time of Dhuhr, making each one two units. He remains in Namira Mosque
until sunset if possible. He remembers Allah and makes as many supplications
as possible while facing the Qibla.
(may the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) prayed thus: "There
is no Deity but Allah alone. He has no partner. All dominion and praise are
His and He is powerful over all things."
If he grows
weary it is permissible for him to engage in beneficial onversation with his
companions or reading what he can find of beneficial books, especially those
concerning Allah's grace and abundant gifts. This will strengthen his hope in
then return to his supplications and be sure to spend the end of the day deep
in supplication because the best of supplication is the supplication of the
day of Arafah. At sunset he goes from Arafah to Muzdalifah and there prays Magrib,
Isha, and Fajr. If he is tired or has little water, it is permissible for him
to combine Magrib and Isha. If he fears that he will not reach Muzdalifah until
after midnight, he should pray before he reaches it for it is not permissible
to delay prayer until after midnight. He remains there, in Muzdalifah, making
supplications and remembering Allah till just before sunrise.
If he is weak
and cannot handle the crowd during Ar-Ramy, it is permissible for him to go
to Mina at the end of the night to stone the Jamrah before the arrival of the
crowd. Near sunrise, a pilgrim goes from Muzdalifah to Mina. Upon reaching it
he does the following:
a) He throws seven consecutive
pebbles at Jamrah Al-Aqaba which is the closest monument to Makkah, saying
Greatest," as he : "Allah is the throws each pebble.
b) He slaughters the
sacrificial animal, eats some of it, and gives some to the poor. Slaughter
is obligatory on the Mutamati and Qiran.
c) He shaves or clips
his hair; shaving is preferable. A woman clips her hair the length of a finger
should be done in the above order if convenient, but there is no restriction
if one precedes another.
one is allowed to come out of Ihram. He can wear other clothing and do everything
that was lawful before Ihram except engaging in marital relations.
He goes to
Makkah to perform Tawaf Al-lfadha and Sa'yi, also for Hajj. It is Sunnah to
put perfume on before going to Makkah. With the completion of this Tawaf and
Sa'yi, a pilgrim is allowed to do everything that was lawful before Ihram, including
engaging in marital relations. After performing Tawaf and Sa'yi, he returns
to Mina to spend the nights of the eleventh and twelfth days there. He stones
the three Jamrah in the afternoon of both the eleventh and twelfth days.
with the first Jamrah, which is furthest from Makkah, then the middle one, and
lastly Jamrah Al-Aqaba. Each one should be stoned with seven consecutive pebbles
accompanied by Takbeer. He stops after the first and middle Jamrah to make supplications
facing the Qibla. It is not permissible to stone before noon on these two days.
It is best to walk to the Jamrah, but riding is permissible. If he is in a hurry
after stoning on the twelfth day, he leaves Mina before sunset. But if he wishes
to prolong his stay, which is best, he spends the night of the thirteenth in
Mina and stones that afternoon in the same manner as on the twelfth day.
When he is
ready to return to his country, he makes Tawaf Al-Wadaa, which is seven circuits
around the Ka'bah. Menstruating women and women experiencing postnatal discharge
are not obligated to perform Tawaf Al-Wadaa.
The Prophet's Mosque
1. A pilgrim
goes to Madina before or after Hajj with the intention of visiting the Prophet's
mosque and praying in it. Prayer there is better than a thousand prayers elsewhere
except in the Holy Mosque in Makkah.
2. Upon reaching
the mosque he prays two Rakaas of salutation or performs any obligatory prayer
that is due.
3. He goes
to the grave of the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)
and he stands before it. He greets him saying the "May the peace, mercy, and
blessings of Allah be upon you, oh Prophet. May Allah grant you a good reward
on behalf of your people." He takes a step or two to his right to position himself
before Abu-Bakr and greets him saying : "May the peace, mercy, and blessing
of Allah be upon you. oh Abu-Bakr, Caliph of the Messenger of Allah. May Allah
be pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammad's people."
Then he takes a step or two to his right to position himself before Umar and
greets him saying: " May the peace, mercy and blessings of Allah be upon you,
oh Umar, Prince of the believers. May Allah be pleased with you and grant you
a good reward on behalf of Muhammad's people."
4. In a state
of purity, he goes to pray in Qubaa Mosque.
5. He goes
to Al-Baqee to visit Uthman's grave (may Allah be pleased with him). He stands
before it and greets him saying: "May the peace, mercy and blessing of Allah
be upon you, oh Uthman Prince of the believers. May Allah be pleased with you
and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammad's people." He greets any other
Muslims in Al-Baqee.
6. He goes
to Uhud and visits the grave of Hamza (may Allah be pleased with him) and the
other martyrs there with him. He greets them and preys to Allah to grant them
forgiveness, mercy, and pleasure.
is incumbent upon the Muhrim for Hajj or Umrah:
1. That he be committed
to Allah's religious obligations upon him such as prayer in its time (in congregation
2. That he avoids what
Allah has prohibited such as obscenity, inequity, and disobedience.
"... if anyone undertakes Hajj therein, Let there be no obscenity,
nor wickedness, nor wrangling during Hajj [2:197].
3. That he avoids harming
the Muslims with words or actions within the Masha'ir or elsewhere.
4. That he avoids all
of the restrictions of Ihram:
a. He shouldn't cause
the loss of any of his hair or nails. A prick by a thorn and the like is
unobjectionable, even if there is bleeding.
b. He shouldn't perfume
himself, his clothing, his food or his drink after entering Ihram. He should
also abstain from cleansing himself with scented soap. There is no harm
in what remains of the effect of perfume used prior to Ihram.
c. He shouldn't touch,
kiss, etc. his spouse out of passion and, even worse, shouldn't have sexual
d. He shouldn't be
wed or propose to a woman for himself or others.
e. He shouldn't wear
gloves, although there is no harm in wrapping the hands in cloth. This ruling
goes for both men and women.
pertains specifically to men:
a) He cannot cover his
head with something that touches it, although there is no harm in the use
of an umbrella, the roof of a car or tent for shade. There is also no harm
in carrying his baggage atop his head.
b) He cannot wear a shirt,
turban, hooded cloak trousers, or shoes. Only if he is unable to obtain an
Ezar or sandals can he wear trousers or shoes.
c) He cannot wear anything
with the same qualities of the above mentioned such as an Abea', Qubaa, hat,
undershirt, etc. It is permissible for him to wear sandals, rings, glasses,
a hearing aid. a watch, worn on his wrist or hung from his neck, or a speech
aid. It is permissible for him to cleanse himself with unscented cleansers
and to wash and scratch his head and body, even if some of his hair falls
unintentionally. In such a case there is no obligation on him because of it.
A woman cannot
wear a Niqab or Burqa'. The Sunnah is for her to uncover her face except if
men not related to her might see her, in which case it is obligatory for her
to cover her face during Ihram and otherwise.
Allah is the
giver of success. May His blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad and all of
his family and companions.
By the needy
before Allah, Muhammad Saalih Al-Uthaymeen